Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 1, Verse 34-35

आचार्या: पितर: पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहा: |
मातुला: श्वशुरा: पौत्रा: श्याला: सम्बन्धिनस्तथा || 34||
एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन |
अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतो: किं नु महीकृते || 35||

āchāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathaiva cha pitāmahāḥ
mātulāḥ śhvaśhurāḥ pautrāḥ śhyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā

etān na hantum ichchhāmi ghnato ’pi madhusūdana
api trailokya-rājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahī-kṛite

āchāryāḥteachers; pitaraḥfathers; putrāḥsons; tathāas well; evaindeed; chaalso; pitāmahāḥgrandfathers; mātulāḥmaternal uncles; śhvaśhurāḥfathers-in-law; pautrāḥgrandsons; śhyālāḥbrothers-in-law; sambandhinaḥkinsmen; tathāas well; etānthese; nanot; hantumto slay; ichchhāmiI wish; ghnataḥkilled; apieven though; madhusūdanaShree Krishna, killer of the demon Madhu; apieven though; trai-lokya-rājyasyadominion over three worlds; hetoḥfor the sake of; kim nuwhat to speak of; mahī-kṛitefor the earth

Translation

BG 1.34–1.35: Teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, grandsons, fathers-in-law, grand-nephews, brothers-in-law, and other kinsmen are present here, staking their lives and riches. O Madhusudan, I do not wish to slay them, even if they attack me. If we kill the sons of Dhritarasthra, O Janardan, what satisfaction will we derive from the dominion over the three worlds, what to speak of this Earth?

Commentary

Dronacharya and Kripacharya were Arjun’s teachers; Bheeshma and Somadatta were his grand-uncles; people like Bhurishrava (son of Somdatta) were like his father; Purujit, Kuntibhoj, Shalya, and Shakuni were his maternal uncles; the hundred sons of Dhritarashtra were his cousin brothers; Lakshman (Duryodhan’s son) was like his child. Arjun refers to all the varieties of his relatives present on the battlefield. He uses the word api (which means “even though”) twice. Firstly, “Why should they wish to kill me, even though I am their relative and well-wisher?” Secondly, “Even though they may desire to slay me, why should I wish to slay them?”