Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 1, Verse 34-35

आचार्या: पितर: पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहा: |
मातुला: श्वशुरा: पौत्रा: श्याला: सम्बन्धिनस्तथा || 34||
एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन |
अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतो: किं नु महीकृते || 35||

āchāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathaiva cha pitāmahāḥ
mātulāḥ śhvaśhurāḥ pautrāḥ śhyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā

etān na hantum ichchhāmi ghnato ’pi madhusūdana
api trailokya-rājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahī-kṛite

āchāryāḥteachers; pitaraḥfathers; putrāḥsons; tathāas well; evaindeed; chaalso; pitāmahāḥgrandfathers; mātulāḥmaternal uncles; śhvaśhurāḥfathers-in-law; pautrāḥgrandsons; śhyālāḥbrothers-in-law; sambandhinaḥkinsmen; tathāas well; etānthese; nanot; hantumto slay; ichchhāmiI wish; ghnataḥkilled; apieven though; madhusūdanaShree Krishna, killer of the demon Madhu; apieven though; trai-lokya-rājyasyadominion over three worlds; hetoḥfor the sake of; kim nuwhat to speak of; mahī-kṛitefor the earth

Translation

BG 1.34-35: Teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, grandsons, fathers-in-law, grand-nephews, brothers-in-law, and other kinsmen are present here, staking their lives and riches. O Madhusudan, I do not wish to slay them, even if they attack me. If we kill the sons of Dhritarashtra, what satisfaction will we derive from the dominion over the three worlds, what to speak of this Earth?

Commentary

Arjun looked at the vast gathering of warriors on the battlefield and started considering his relationships with them. His teachers, Dronacharya and Kripacharaya; grand uncle Bheeshma and Somadutta; Bhurishrava (Somdatta’s son); Kuntibhoj, Purujit, Shalya, and Shakuni his maternal uncles. The hundred Kauravas were his uncle Dhritarashra’s sons; their sons, grandsons, and several other relatives had all assembled there prepared for a battle till death.

Twice in this verse, Arjun used the word api which means “even though.” He addresses Shree Krishna as Madhusudan, the killer of a demon named Madhu and says, “O Madhusudan, I do not wish to kill them even though I am aware they are eager to do so.” Again, he says, “Even though for the sake of victory over the three worlds we fight, what joy would we get by killing our own folks?”