Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 8, Verse 4

अधिभूतं क्षरो भाव: पुरुषश्चाधिदैवतम् |
अधियज्ञोऽहमेवात्र देहे देहभृतां वर || 4||

adhibhūtaṁ kṣharo bhāvaḥ puruṣhaśh chādhidaivatam
adhiyajño ’ham evātra dehe deha-bhṛitāṁ vara

adhibhutam ksharo bhavah purushash chadhidaivatam
adhiyajno ’ham evatra dehe deha-bhritam vara

adhibhūtamthe ever changing physical manifestation; kṣharaḥperishable; bhāvaḥnature; puruṣhaḥthe cosmic personality of God, encompassing the material creation; chaand; adhidaivatamthe Lord of the celestial gods; adhiyajñaḥthe Lord of all sacrifices; ahamI; evacertainly; atrahere; dehein the body; deha-bhṛitāmof the embodied; varaO best

Translation

BG 8.4: O best of the embodied souls, the physical manifestation that is constantly changing is called adhibhūta; the universal form of God, which presides over the celestial gods in this creation, is called adhidaiva; I, who dwell in the heart of every living being, am called Adhiyajña, or the Lord of all sacrifices.

Commentary

The universe is a kaleidoscope of all the physical manifestations of the five elements of nature: earth, water, fire, air, and space. This ever-changing universe is called adhibhūta. Although the devatās or the celestial gods administer the different departments of the universe, God has sovereignty, even over the devatās. He is Virāṭ Purusha, the complete cosmic personality who encompasses the entire material creation. Hence, God is called Adhidaiva

Shree Krishna says that as the Supreme Soul or Paramātmā, He dwells in the hearts of all living beings of the universe. He is the one who bestows rewards for all our actions and the presiding divinity for all the yajna (sacrifices). Thus, He is also called Adhiyajña, or the Lord of all sacrifices. Therefore, all yajna should be performed; for the satisfaction of this Supreme Divine Personality.

So far, Shree Krishna has answered six out of the seven questions concerning the meanings of the various terms Arjun had asked at the beginning of this chapter. In the next few verses, Shree Krishna will answer Arjun’s seventh question regarding the moment of death.