The Bhagavad Gita, or the song of God, was revealed by Lord Shree Krishna to Arjun on the threshold of the epic war of Mahabharata. A decisive battle between two sets of cousins, the Kauravas and the Pandavas, was just about to commence on the battlefield of Kurukshetra. A detailed account of the reasons that led to such a colossal war; is given under Introduction-The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita.
The Bhagavad Gita is primarily a conversation between Lord Shree Krishna and Arjun. However, the first chapter begins with a dialogue between King Dhritarashtra and his minister Sanjay. Dhritarashtra being blind, could not leave his palace in Hastinapur but was eager to know the ongoings of the battlefield.
Sanjay was a disciple of Sage Ved Vyas, the author of the epic Mahabharata and several other Hindu scriptures. Sage Ved Vyas possessed a mystic ability to see and hear events occurring in distant places. He had bestowed upon Sanjay the miraculous power of distant vision. Therefore, Sanjay could see and hear, what transpired on the battleground of Kurukshetra, and gave a first-hand account to King Dhritarashtra while still being in his palace.
Bhagavad Gita 1.1 View commentary »
Dhritarashtra said: O Sanjay, after gathering on the holy field of Kurukshetra, and desiring to fight, what did my sons and the sons of Pandu do?
Bhagavad Gita 1.2 View commentary »
Sanjay said: On observing the Pandava army standing in military formation, King Duryodhan approached his teacher Dronacharya, and said the following words.
Bhagavad Gita 1.3 View commentary »
Duryodhan said: Respected teacher! Behold the mighty army of the sons of Pandu, so expertly arrayed for battle by your own gifted disciple, the son of Drupad.
Bhagavad Gita 1.4 – 1.6 View commentary »
Behold in their ranks are many powerful warriors, like Yuyudhan, Virat, and Drupad, wielding mighty bows and equal in military prowess to Bheem and Arjun. There are also accomplished heroes like Dhrishtaketu, Chekitan, the gallant King of Kashi, Purujit, Kuntibhoj, and Shaibya—all the best of men. In their ranks, they also have the courageous Yudhamanyu, the gallant Uttamauja, the son of Subhadra, and the sons of Draupadi, who are all great warrior chiefs.
Bhagavad Gita 1.7 View commentary »
O best of Brahmins, hear too about the principal generals on our side, who are especially qualified to lead. These I now recount unto you.
Bhagavad Gita 1.8 View commentary »
There are personalities like yourself, Bheeshma, Karna, Kripa, Ashwatthama, Vikarn, and Bhurishrava, who are ever victorious in battle.
Bhagavad Gita 1.9 View commentary »
Also, there are many other heroic warriors, who are prepared to lay down their lives for my sake. They are all skilled in the art of warfare, and equipped with various kinds of weapons.
Bhagavad Gita 1.10 View commentary »
The strength of our army is unlimited and we are safely marshalled by Grandsire Bheeshma, while the strength of the Pandava army, carefully marshalled by Bheem, is limited.
Bhagavad Gita 1.11 View commentary »
Therefore, I call upon all the generals of the Kaurava army now to give full support to Grandsire Bheeshma, even as you defend your respective strategic points.
Bhagavad Gita 1.12 View commentary »
Then, the grand old man of the Kuru dynasty, the glorious patriarch Bheeshma, roared like a lion, and blew his conch shell very loudly, giving joy to Duryodhan.
Bhagavad Gita 1.13 View commentary »
Thereafter, conches, kettledrums, bugles, trumpets, and horns suddenly blared forth, and their combined sound was overwhelming.
Bhagavad Gita 1.14 View commentary »
Then, from amidst the Pandava army, seated in a glorious chariot drawn by white horses, Madhav and Arjun blew their Divine conch shells.
Bhagavad Gita 1.15 View commentary »
Hrishikesh blew his conch shell, called Panchajanya, and Arjun blew the Devadutta. Bheem, the voracious eater and performer of herculean tasks, blew his mighty conch, called Paundra.
Bhagavad Gita 1.16 – 1.18 View commentary »
King Yudhishthir, blew the Anantavijay, while Nakul and Sahadev blew the Sughosh and Manipushpak. The excellent archer and king of Kashi, the great warrior Shikhandi, Dhrishtadyumna, Virat, and the invincible Satyaki, Drupad, the five sons of Draupadi, and the mighty-armed Abhimanyu, son of Subhadra, all blew their respective conch shells, O Ruler of the earth.
Bhagavad Gita 1.19 View commentary »
The terrific sound thundered across the sky and the earth, and shattered the hearts of your sons, O Dhritarasthra.
Bhagavad Gita 1.20 View commentary »
At that time, the son of Pandu, Arjun, who had the insignia of Hanuman on the flag of his chariot, took up his bow. Seeing your sons arrayed against him, O King, Arjun then spoke the following words to Shree Krishna.
Bhagavad Gita 1.21 – 1.22 View commentary »
Arjun said: O Infallible One, please take my chariot to the middle of both armies, so that I may look at the warriors arrayed for battle, whom I must fight in this great combat.
Bhagavad Gita 1.23 View commentary »
I desire to see those who have come here to fight on the side of the evil-minded son of Dhritarasthra, wishing to please him.
Bhagavad Gita 1.24 View commentary »
Sanjay said: O Dhritarasthra, having thus been addressed by Arjun, the conqueror of sleep, Shree Krishna then drew the magnificent chariot between the two armies.
Bhagavad Gita 1.25 View commentary »
In the presence of Bheeshma, Dronacharya, and all the other kings, Shree Krishna said: O Parth, behold these Kurus gathered here.
Bhagavad Gita 1.26 View commentary »
There, Arjun could see stationed in both armies, his fathers, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, cousins, sons, nephews, grand-nephews, friends, fathers-in-law, and well-wishers.
Bhagavad Gita 1.27 View commentary »
Seeing all his relatives present there, Arjun, the son of Kunti, was overwhelmed with compassion, and with deep sorrow, spoke the following words.
Bhagavad Gita 1.28 View commentary »
Arjun said: O Krishna, seeing my own kinsmen arrayed for battle here and intent on killing each other, my limbs are giving way and my mouth is drying up.
Bhagavad Gita 1.29 – 1.31 View commentary »
My whole body shudders; my hair is standing on end. My bow, the Gāṇḍīv, is slipping from my hand, and my skin is burning all over. My mind is in quandary and whirling in confusion; I am unable to hold myself steady any longer. O Krishna, killer of the Keshi demon, I only see omens of misfortune. I do not foresee how any good can come from killing my own kinsmen in this battle.
Bhagavad Gita 1.32 – 1.33 View commentary »
O Krishna, I do not desire victory, kingdom, or the happiness accruing to it. Of what avail will be a kingdom, pleasures, or even life itself, when the very persons for whom we covet them, are standing before us for battle?
Bhagavad Gita 1.34 – 1.35 View commentary »
Teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, grandsons, fathers-in-law, grand-nephews, brothers-in-law, and other kinsmen are present here, staking their lives and riches. O Madhusudan, I do not wish to slay them, even if they attack me. If we kill the sons of Dhritarashtra, what satisfaction will we derive from the dominion over the three worlds, what to speak of this Earth?
Bhagavad Gita 1.36 – 1.37 View commentary »
O Maintainer of all living entities, what pleasure will we derive from killing the sons of Dhritarasthra? Even though they may be aggressors, sin will certainly come upon us if we slay them. Hence, it does not behoove us to kill our own cousins, the sons of Dhritarashtra, and friends. O Madhav (Krishna), how can we hope to be happy by killing our own kinsmen?
Bhagavad Gita 1.38 – 1.39 View commentary »
Their thoughts are overpowered by greed and they see no wrong in annihilating their relatives or wreaking treachery upon friends. Yet, O Janardan (Krishna), why should we, who can clearly see the crime in killing our kindred, not turn away from this sin?
Bhagavad Gita 1.40 View commentary »
When a dynasty is destroyed, its traditions get vanquished, and the rest of the family becomes involved in irreligion.
Bhagavad Gita 1.41 View commentary »
With the preponderance of vice, O Krishna, the women of the family become immoral; and from the immorality of women, O descendent of Vrishni, unwanted progeny are born.
Bhagavad Gita 1.42 View commentary »
An increase in unwanted children results in hellish life both for the family and for those who destroy the family. Deprived of sacrificial offerings, the ancestors of such corrupt families also fall.
Bhagavad Gita 1.43 View commentary »
Through the evil deeds of those who destroy the family tradition and thus give rise to unwanted progeny, a variety of social and family welfare activities are ruined.
Bhagavad Gita 1.44 View commentary »
O Janardan (Krishna), I have heard from the learned that those who destroy family traditions dwell in hell for an indefinite period of time.
Bhagavad Gita 1.45 – 1.46 View commentary »
Alas! How strange it is that we have set our mind to perform this great sin with horrifying consequences. Driven by the desire for kingly pleasures, we are intent on killing our own kinsmen. It would be better if, with weapons in hand, the sons of Dhritarashtra kill me unarmed and unresisting on the battlefield.
Bhagavad Gita 1.47 View commentary »
Sanjay said: Speaking thus, Arjun cast aside his bow and arrows, and sank into the seat of his chariot, his mind in distress and overwhelmed with grief.